ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ

ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ಜ್ಞಾನ

ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ

ಸಂಪಾದನೆ : ಸಿ.ಹೆಚ್‌ ನಾಯಕ

ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ :

 ವಿವಿಧ ಕ್ಷೇತ್ರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಧನೆ ಮಾಡಿದವರಿಗೆ ಭಾರತ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ನೀಡುವ ಪರಮೋಚ್ಛ ಗೌರವವೇ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ. ಇದನ್ನು ದೇಶದ ಅತ್ಯುನ್ನತ ನಾಗರಿಕ ಪುರಸ್ಕಾರ ಎಂದೂ ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಆಯ್ಕೆಯಾದವರಿಗೆ ಅಶ್ವತ್ಥ ಎಲೆಯ ಆಕಾರದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಪದಕವನ್ನು ನೀಡಿ ಗೌರವಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

ಪದಕದ ವಿಶೇಷ :

ಅಶ್ವತ್ಥ ಎಲೆಯ ಆಕಾರದಲ್ಲಿ ಪದಕವಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಇದರ ಒಂದು ಬದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಲಾಂಛನವಿದ್ದು ಸತ್ಯಮೇವ ಜಯತೇ ಎಂದು ಬರೆದಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಮತ್ತೊಂದು ಬದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸೂರ್ಯನ ಚಿತ್ರ ಮತ್ತು ಅದರ ಕೆಳಗೆ ದೇವನಾಗರಿ ಲಿಪಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ‘ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ’ ಎಂದು ಬರೆಯಲಾಗಿದೆ.“ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ” ಪದಕಗಳನ್ನು ಕೋಲ್ಕತ್ತಾದ ಅಲಿಪೋರ್ ಮಿಂಟ್ ನಲ್ಲಿ ತಯಾರಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

 ಯಾರು ಕೊಡುತ್ತಾರೆ ? :

ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ಪುರಸ್ಕೃತರ ಹೆಸರನ್ನು ಭಾರತದ ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳು, ಗೃಹ ಇಲಾಖೆಯ ಸಿಫಾರಸು ಆಧಾರದ ಮೇಲೆ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಪತಿಗೆ ಹೆಸರುಗಳನ್ನು ಸೂಚಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಈ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಭಾರತದ ಮಾಜಿ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಪತಿ ರಾಜೇಂದ್ರ ಪ್ರಸಾದ್ ಅವರು ಜನವರಿ 2, 1954 ರಂದು ಪ್ರಾರಂಭಿಸಿದರು ಈ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯನ್ನು 1954 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಮೊದಲು ಪಡೆದವರು ಡಾ.ಸರ್ವಪಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಧಾಕೃಷ್ಣನ್, ಸರ್ ಸಿ.ವಿ. ರಾಮನ್, ಮತ್ತು ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿ ರಾಜಗೋಪಾಲಾಚಾರಿ.

 ಮರಣೋತ್ತರ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ನೀಡಬಹುದೇ :

 ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ನೀಡಲು ಆರಂಭಿಸಿದಾಗ ಮರಣೋತ್ತರವಾಗಿ ನೀಡಲು ಅವಕಾಶ ಇರಲಿಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ, 1955ರಲ್ಲಿ ನಿಯಮಗಳಿಗೆ ತಿದ್ದುಪಡಿ ತಂದು ಮರಣೋತ್ತರವಾಗಿ ನೀಡಲು ಅವಕಾಶ ಕಲ್ಪಿಸಲಾಯಿತು. ಮರಣೋತ್ತರವಾಗಿ ಮೊದಲು ಈ ಗೌರವಕ್ಕೆ ಪಾತ್ರರಾದವರು ಮಾಜಿ ಪ್ರಧಾನಿ ದಿ. ಲಾಲ್‌ ಬಹದ್ದೂರ್ ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಿ. 1966ರಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರಿಗೆ ಮರಣೋತ್ತರವಾಗಿ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ನೀಡಲಾಯಿತು.

 

 

 

ಮರಣೊತ್ತರವಾಗಿ ಗೌರವಕ್ಕೆ ಪಾತ್ರರಾದವರು ಯಾರೆಲ್ಲ?

* ಲಾಲ್ ಬಹದ್ದೂರ್ ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಿ (ಮಾಜಿ ಪ್ರಧಾನಿ)

* ಕುಮಾರಸ್ವಾಮಿ ಕಾಮರಾಜ್ (ತಮಿಳುನಾಡಿನ ಮಾಜಿ ಮುಖ್ಯಮಂತ್ರಿ)

* ವಿನೋಬಾ ಭಾವೆ (ಭೂದಾನ ಚಳವಳಿಯ ಹರಿಕಾರರು)

* ಡಾ. ಎಮ್. ಜಿ. ರಾಮಚಂದ್ರನ್ (ತಮಿಳು ನಟ, ತಮಿಳುನಾಡಿನ ಮಾಜಿ ಮುಖ್ಯಮಂತ್ರಿ)

* ಡಾ. ಬಿ.ಆರ್.ಅಂಬೇಡ್ಕರ್ (ಸಂವಿಧಾನ ಶಿಲ್ಪಿ)

* ರಾಜೀವ್ ಗಾಂಧಿ (ಮಾಜಿ ಪ್ರಧಾನಿ)

* ಸರ್ದಾರ್ ವಲ್ಲಭಭಾಯ್ ಪಟೇಲ್ (ದೇಶದ ಮೊದಲ ಗೃಹ ಸಚಿವ)

* ಮೌಲಾನಾ ಅಬ್ದುಲ್ ಕಲಮ್ ಆಜಾದ್ (ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರ)

* ಅರುಣಾ ಅಸಫ್ ಅಲಿ (ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರ)

* ಗೋಪಿನಾಥ್ ಬೋರ್ಡೊಲೋಯಿ (ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರ)

* ಮದನ ಮೋಹನ ಮಾಳವೀಯ (ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರ, ರಾಜಕಾರಣಿ)

ವಲ್ಲಭಭಾಯಿ ಪಟೇಲ್ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆದ ಹಿರಿಯರು (ಸಾವಿನ ನಂತರ, 116 ನೇ ವಯಸ್ಸಿನಲ್ಲಿ) ಮತ್ತು ಗುಲ್ಜರಿಲಾಲ್ ನಂದಾ (99 ನೇ ವಯಸ್ಸಿನಲ್ಲಿ) ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆದ ಹಿರಿಯ ಜೀವಂತ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿ.

ವಿಶೇಷ :

ಸಚಿನ್ ತೆಂಡೂಲ್ಕರ್ ಮೊದಲ ಕ್ರೀಡಾಪಟು ಮತ್ತು ಕಿರಿಯ ಭಾರತ್ ರತ್ನ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ವಿಜೇತ.

ಹಾಗೆಯೆ ಎಂ.ಎಸ್. ಸುಬ್ಬಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಿ ಈ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆದ ಮೊದಲ ಸಂಗೀತಗಾರ್ತಿ

 ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯು ಪ್ರತಿ ವರ್ಷ ನೀಡುವುದು ಕಡ್ಡಾಯವಲ್ಲ, ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯು ಯಾವುದೇ ವಿತ್ತೀಯ ಅನುದಾನವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಒಂದು ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ವರ್ಷದಲ್ಲಿ ಗರಿಷ್ಠ ಮೂರು ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗಳು ಈ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯಬಹುದು (ಆದರೂ 1999 ರಲ್ಲಿ ನಾಲ್ಕು ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ನೀಡಲಾಯಿತು).

ವಿವಾದ :

ಸಚಿನ್ ತೆಂಡೂಲ್ಕರ್ ಅವರು ರಾಜ್ಯಸಭಾ ಸದಸ್ಯರಾಗಿರುವುದರಿಂದ ಅವರನ್ನು ಆಯ್ಕೆ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದು, ಚುನಾವಣಾ ನೀತಿ ಸಂಹಿತೆಯ ಉಲ್ಲಂಘನೆ. ದೆಹಲಿ, ರಾಜಸ್ಥಾನ, ಮಧ್ಯಪ್ರದೇಶ, ಛತ್ತೀಸಗಡ ಹಾಗೂ ಮಿಜೋರಾಂ ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಚಚುನಾವಣಾ ಪ್ರಕ್ರಿಯೆ ಪ್ರಗತಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುವಾಗ ಈ ಕ್ರಮ ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಹೀಗಾಗಿ ಇದು ನೀತಿ ಸಂಹಿತೆಯ ಉಲ್ಲಂಘನೆ ಎಂದು ಚುನಾವಣಾ ಆಯೋಗಕ್ಕೂ ದೂರು ನೀಡಲಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಆದರೆ ಕೊನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ, ಎಲ್ಲ ಅರ್ಜಿಗಳನ್ನು ರದ್ದುಪಡಿಸಿದ್ದ ಹೈಕೋರ್ಟ್‌ಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಚುನಾವಣಾ ಆಯೋಗ ರಾವ್ ಮತ್ತು ಸಚಿನ್ ಕೊಡುಗೆಯನ್ನು ಕೊಂಡಾಡಿದ್ದವು..

 ಹೌದು ಒಂದು ಬಾರಿ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ಘೋಷಣೆಯಾಗಿ ನಂತರ ರದ್ದು ಮಾಡಬೇಕಾದ ಸಂದರ್ಭ ಒದಗಿಬಂದಿತ್ತು. ಅದು ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರ ನೇತಾಜಿ ಸುಭಾಷ್‌ಚಂದ್ರ ಬೋಸ್ ಅವರಿಗೆ. 1992ರಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಭಾಷ್‌ಚಂದ್ರ ಬೋಸ್‌ಗೆ ಮರಣೊತ್ತರವಾಗಿ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ಗೌರವ ನೀಡುವುದಾಗಿ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಘೋಷಿಸಿತ್ತು. ಆದರೆ, ಅದರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಸುಪ್ರೀಂ ಕೋರ್ಟ್‌ಗೆ ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕ ಹಿತಾಸಕ್ತಿ ಅರ್ಜಿ (ಪಿಐಎಲ್) ಸಲ್ಲಿಕೆಯಾಗಿತ್ತು. ನೇತಾಜಿಯವರು ಬದುಕಿದ್ದಾರೆಯೇ ಅಥವಾ ಮೃತಪಟ್ಟಿದ್ದಾರೆಯೇ ಎಂಬ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಅನುಮಾನಗಳಿವೆ. ಇಂತಹ ಸಂದರ್ಭದಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರಿಗೆ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ನೀಡುವ ನಿರ್ಧಾರ ಸರಿಯೇ ಎಂದು ಅರ್ಜಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಶ್ನಿಸಲಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಕೊನೆಗೆ 1997ರಲ್ಲಿನ ಸುಪ್ರೀಂ ಕೋರ್ಟ್‌ ಆದೇಶದ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಬೋಸ್ ಅವರಿಗೆ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ನೀಡುವ ನಿರ್ಧಾರವನ್ನುರದ್ದುಗೊಳಿಸಲಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಒಮ್ಮೆ ಒಬ್ಬ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗೆ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ಘೋಷಿಸಿ ನಂತರ ರದ್ದು ಮಾಡಿದ್ದು ಇದೇ ಮೊದಲು ಹಾಗೂ ಕೊನೆಯಾಗಿದೆ.‌

.ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳಾದ ಜವಾಹರಲಾಲ್ ನೆಹರು (1947-64) ಮತ್ತು ಇಂದಿರಾ ಗಾಂಧಿ (1966-77, 1980-84) ಅವರು ಕ್ರಮವಾಗಿ 1955 ಮತ್ತು 1971 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಗಳನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯಲು ತಮ್ಮ ಹೆಸರನ್ನು ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷರಿಗೆ ಶಿಫಾರಸು ಮಾಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ ಎಂದು ಟೀಕಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.

ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ಪಡೆದ ಕನ್ನಡಿಗರು :

  • ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನಕ್ಕೆ ಪಾತ್ರರಾದ ಮೊದಲ ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ – ಸರ್.ಎಂ.ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ
  • ಭೀಮಸೇನ ಜೋಶಿ
  • ಸಿ.ಎನ್.ಆರ್ ರಾವ್‌

ವಿದೇಶಿಯರಿಗೆ ಈ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ನೀಡಬಹುದೇ ?

    ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಾಧಕರಿಗೆ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ನೀಡಲಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ. 1980ರಲ್ಲಿ ಮದರ್ ತೆರೆಸಾ ಅವರನ್ನು ಭಾರತೀಯರು ಎಂದು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಿ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ನೀಡಿದ ಬಳಿಕ ಇಬ್ಬರು ವಿದೇಶಿಯರಿಗೆ ಈ ಗೌರವ ಸಂದಿದೆ. ಅವಿಭಜಿತ ಪಾಕಿಸ್ತಾನದ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರ ಅಬ್ದುಲ್‌ ಗಫ‌ರ್‌ ಖಾನ್‌ ಅವರಿಗೆ 1987ರಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಆಫ್ರಿಕಾದ ಮಾಜಿ ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷ ನೆಲ್ಸನ್ ಮಂಡೇಲಾ ಅವರಿಗೆ 1990ರಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ನೀಡಿ ಗೌರವಿಸಲಾಗಿತ್ತು.

 ಸೌಲಭ್ಯಗಳು :

         ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನದ ಜತೆ ನಗದು ಪುರಸ್ಕಾರ ಇರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ, ಗೌರವಕ್ಕೆ ಪಾತ್ರರಾದವರು ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ಕೆಲವು ಸೌಲಭ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯಬಹುದಾಗಿದೆ. ರೈಲುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಉಚಿತ ಪ್ರಯಾಣ, ಸರ್ಕಾರಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ರಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಆದ್ಯತೆ ಸೇರಿದಂತೆ ಕೆಲವು ಸರ್ಕಾರಿ ಸೌಲಭ್ಯಗಳು ದೊರೆಯುತ್ತವೆ. ಅಲ್ಲದೆ, ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನಕ್ಕೆ ಪಾತ್ರರಾದವರು ಭಾರತ ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ಗಣ್ಯರ ಪಟ್ಟಿ ಅಥವಾ ಪ್ರೊಟೊಕಾಲ್‌ನಲ್ಲಿ ಏಳನೇ ಸ್ಥಾನ ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಅಂದರೆ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಪತಿ, ಉಪರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಪತಿ, ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿ, ರಾಜ್ಯಪಾಲ, ಮಾಜಿ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಪತಿ, ಉಪಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿ, ಮುಖ್ಯ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಧೀಶ, ಲೋಕಸಭಾ ಸ್ಪೀಕರ್‌, ಕ್ಯಾಬಿನೆಟ್‌ ಮಂತ್ರಿ, ಮುಖ್ಯಮಂತ್ರಿ, ಮಾಜಿ ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಸತ್ತಿನ ಎರಡೂ ಸದನದ ವಿರೋಧ ಪಕ್ಷದ ನಾಯಕರ ನಂತರದ ಸ್ಥಾನ ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ.

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